The Bio-Technical Airship, Bio-Technical Submarine,
and the Biosphere Dirigible
Airship and Submersible craft
based on inventions and designs from
Nikola Tesla and Viktor Schauberger
Frank Germano (President of Global Energy Technologies, Inc.) proudly presents a view of aerial and underwater transportation of the future. All concepts are are based on the pioneering work of Viktor Schauberger and Nikola Tesla, and with the technology at hand, can be built today. Click on thumbnails for larger view of each rendering -
The Biosphere Dirigible - featuring a revolutionary lifting technology, carbon fiber superstructure, outboard mounted control & stabilization pods, and Internal Vortex Accelerated Bladeless Disk propulsion system...
The Schauberger Bio-Technical Submarine: a new type of submersible vessel, featuring a radically new type of naturalesque power and propulsion system...
The True Bio-Technical Airship: Schauberger & Tesla hybrid vortex propulsion system, internal vortex accelerated thrusters, outboard mounted control pods, framed internal super structure. 571 feet length; 145 feet diameter.
The Technical Side:
Frank Germano, accredited aerospace engineer, has designed a revolutionary airship system that incorporates Viktor Schauberger's and Nikola Tesla's pioneering engineering concepts
- At the frontal section of the craft is an air intake plenum (the large opening), which draws in atmospheric air through a spiral vortex generating cone. The air is accelerated via a Tesla bladeless disk air pump system. This accelerated and pressurized air is forced out through an outer ring of slits located along the side of the craft (think of a fish's gills), and the de-oxygenated, pressurized, velocitized air forms vortices along the outside hull of the airship. As per Viktor Schauberger, this reduces friction and creates a "slip" effect as the craft travels through the air. A high degree of mobility is also afforded, and the craft is first pulled into a frontal vacuum, into the vortex, and additionally, "squeezed" through the air, compliments of the greater pressure exerted by the expelled air traveling aft along the hull of the craft. Additional outboard pods, fitted with smaller electric drive BDP propulsion systems are installed in several location around the craft to afford a high degree of directional control and provide vectored thrust stability in any weather conditions. This craft will also generate additional power internally, simply by its own movement through the air. Just how will it do that?
The Airship will use a Tesla-based wind turbine/pump or hydro-BDT, for regenerative air-braking and for additional on-demand electrical power. The Hydro-BDT, which is formed by attaching the rotating horizontal disk-pack to a vertical axis shaft that is mounted to the external frame on bearings, allowing the disk and shaft full rotation. Shutters are designed into the opening of the disk-pack that can open perpendicular to the horizontal disk or can close to a position parallel to and even to the surface of the disk. As the airship travels forward through the air, particularly during the crafts' decent, the force of the incoming airflow drives the Tesla-type BDT's, which in turn drives on-board electrical generators, providing necessary storage or on-demand useful electricity. In comparison a conventional horizontal axis wind turbine or hydro-propeller creates drag across the entire area of the circumference of its vertical blades that are directed into the flow of the wind or water.
Having done preliminary calculations, this system, when adapted to carry freight (commercial and industrial shipping applications) would drastically cut and lower the cost of shipping products from and to overseas markets. This system is not only more cost effective, in terms
of the cost of the shipping, itself - it is also immune to changes in weather or ocean storms. The greater the density of a body of mass, the greater the gravitational pull of the earth on that body of mass. Gravity causes high density mass to sink within lower density mass, like a piece of high density steel sinks in lower density water or like higher density water droplets fall downward toward the earth in lower density air, as each is heavier (higher density) than their respective surrounding body of mass.
The interesting thing about this process is that the gravitational force can cause motion in both the upward and downward directions. Place a helium balloon in the air and the balloon rises because it contains a lower density gas (helium) than the density of the air surrounding the balloon. Likewise, an air bubble in water has a lower density than the density of the surrounding water, which causes the bubble to be lifted upward by the surrounding lifting fluid - water.
Global Energy Technology's new airship has the capability to alter its density (mass as a unit of weight per cubic area) in relationship to the mass of the surrounding air by the use of collapsible gas bags that are inside of the shell of the airship into which low pressure, low density helium is expanded, which causes the overall density of the aircraft to be lighter-than-air, or by forming a vacuum within the cells to create vacuum lift to become lighter-than-air.
To make the overall density of the airship heavier-than-air, compressed air, contained in high pressure cylinders is used as a power source to operate pneumatic motors that drive air compressors to bring in compressed air from the surrounding atmosphere to add weight to the airship. The new, incoming compressed air from the atmosphere and the expanded compressed air from the cylinders are allowed to enter into the area between the inside of the cells of the aircraft and the outside of the gas bags holding the low pressure helium.
The helium is compressed due to the greater pressure of the compressed air outside of the gas bags and as the helium is compressed its volume decreases until it occupies far less area in which the helium occupied while expanded in the gas bags. High (heavier) weight compressed air replaces the space in which the expanded low density helium within the gas bags had previously occupied. The total mass of helium remains constant, but the
in which the mass is housed is
as a result of compression of the helium and in the process additional weight is
to the aircraft in the form of compressed air in order to lose lift. In the event a pure vacuum is used within the cells for lift, air from the atmosphere may be allowed to enter the cells in order to release the vacuum and to add mass to airship to lose lift. Compliments to our friend Bob Hunt for some ground-breaking research work, here!
Advanced "Dual-Aerostatic Lift System":
Lighter-than-air (aerostatic) lift: Aerostatic Lift may be explained by the principal of buoyancy, also known as the "Archimedes Principal" which states: "
an object immersed in a fluid experiences a buoyant force that is equal in magnitude to the force of gravity on the displaced fluid
." Stated differently, the lifting capability is equal to the weight of the surrounding fluid mass that it displaces. Displacing a cubic foot of air creates a lifting capacity equal to the weight of a cubic foot of air, which is .0755 pounds per cubic foot. The lifting capability of helium in air is .062828 pounds per cubic foot at sea level. Hydrogen has a greater lifting capability in air than helium and can lift .0724 pounds per cubic foot at sea level. However, the lifting capability of a vacuum (the absence of any gas molecules at all) beats them both at .0755 pounds per cubic foot at sea level, which is equal to the weight of a cubic foot of air. The reason the lifting capacity of hydrogen or helium is less than the lifting capacity of a vacuum is that the weight of the helium or hydrogen must be subtracted from the lifting capacity in order to obtain a net lifting capacity. Helium is heavier than hydrogen and the lighter hydrogen, therefore, has a greater lifting capacity than does helium.
A conventional aerostatic airship creates lift by the use of gases that are lighter-than-air, such as helium, or use hot air which is less dense than cold air for lift. The lift capacity of hot air is much less than the lift capacity of a lifting gas. Hydrogen generally is not used as a lifting gas any longer because it is explosive and combustible. Lighter-than-air airships are now being designed to attain altitudes of over 100,000 feet and may be built very large to carry heavy loads of passengers and cargo approaching 1,000 tons. By comparison, a U. S. military C-17 heavy lifter only carries near 70 tons. A vacuum contained within an enclosure creates aerostatic lift as it displaces the surrounding air and creates buoyancy. Vacuum-lift may alternatively be used instead of a lifting gas to provide necessary lift. The airship is formed by connecting a series of cells that are strong enough to hold a vacuum and light enough to be lifted by the vacuum formed within the cells. Helium only lifts eighty percent (80%) as much as a vacuum lifts. Lifting gases stop lifting at very high altitudes when the density of the surrounding air is equal to the density of the lifting gas, known as pressure height . However, a vacuum can lift as long as there is any surrounding air to act as a lifting fluid, which would allow a vacuum lifted aircraft to go to a higher altitude and it can become heavier than air merely by allowing a portion of the vacuum to be replaced with surrounding air by opening an air passage to the cells. The vacuum would then be regenerated using wind turbine power during the descent after heavy compressed air is brought into the aircraft to increase its weight so that it remains heavier-than-air.
As a safety feature, the new Airship will use a dual-aerostatic-lift system that will include the use of vacuum-lift and the use of a lifting gas. The lifting gas serves as a backup system in the event of failure of the vacuum-lift. The vacuum is contained within rigid cells that make up the aircraft and the lifting gas is expanded into collapsible gas bags within the cells in the event of rupture of the walls of the cell. During normal operation of the aircraft, the gas bags remain collapsed and lift is provided by the vacuum held within the cells. Alternately, if a pure vacuum cannot be achieved due to material constraints, a partial vacuum may be formed to allow a lifting gas to achieve more lift by being allowed to expand to extremely low pressure, such as less than five pounds per square inch of pressure. The Airship will probably use a partial vacuum on the inside of the cells within the craft that will form low pressure on the outside of the gas bags that hold expanded helium lifting gas within the gas bags at extremely low pressure. The effect is equal to the gas bags being at high altitude while they are at low altitude and more lift is achieved at low altitude by the process. As altitude is increased, the pressure differential decreases, instead of increases as it does in a conventional airship, as the atmospheric pressure drops.
Novel "Air-Braking System" Performance:
As you will note from Viktor Schauberger's original writings on the Bio-technical Submarine, the airship
as if it were a giant fish, swimming through the air. That vacuum created in front of the craft is quite a bit more than meets the eye. Firstly, as there
is an intense vacuum created
in front of the craft, frictional forces on the hull are nearly negated. The hull, while designed out of ultra-lightweight Kevlar impregnated material, is formed with protrusions
resembling and mimicking the scales on a fish - these shapes create mini-vortices, which further enable the craft to move through the air with
near zero friction.
As the airflow traverses along the outside or the craft, from front to back, those vortices additionally "squeeze" the craft through the air. Another quite interesting area is in the braking department - there is a certain point where the spiral vortex in front of the craft matches the internal speed of the hybrid Schauberger/Tesla drive system. At that point, the craft has reached its equilibrium and requires no further power to maintain its forward speed, all things acting in balance. To brake the craft, and slow its speed, one only needs to induce the generator, and the outboard Hydro-BDT pods, to be driven from their power source (bladeless disk packs) - this is quite similar as an analogy to regenerative braking on an automobile. So, when braking or slowing down, the craft inherently generates its own electricity. What happens if we exactly mirror the fish analogy?! We get something like this - pictured left.
Click on image to enlarge.
Advantages of the Bio-Technical Airship:
Whale-Tail propulsion...central imploding centripetal vortex drive...Tesla turbine Vortex power and thrust system...novel fish-scale spun carbon fiber exterior hull cladding material...helium filled/vacuum lifting body! Here's what she'd look like (illustration above left, and below, right), compliments, our friend and scientific development partner, Dr. Evgeni Sorokodum, from Russia;
Vortex Oscillation Technologies, LTD, for this intense rendering. Note that big-'ol whale tail at the rear of the Airship (?!), as it's actively propelling the craft no different than a whale swimming through the water. Not bad. Do some math with those numbers...they equate at all angles to zero friction inside the sine wave all along the body of the craft. Evgeni's website will provide you with much more detail pertaining to the Oscillating "Whale-Tail" propulsion system, than I care to add to my website.
Take a look. How about endurance and strength of the craft? The infrastructure and support members of the airship will be constructed of a new ultra-lightweight carbon fiber impregnated fiberglass and titanium composite material. It's strength to weight ratio is incredible. The vortex-inducing scales, or cladding, are impregnated directly underneath the carbon-fibre composite material. As one final touch to the already incredible structure of the craft, a
"Line-X" polymer, blast-proof coating will be sprayed on the entire surface area of the outer hull of the airship. This will greatly increase the hull integrity and add to its strength. By its very nature, the material is bullet-proof to the extreme. Additionally,
solar panels may be installed on the upper half surface area of the Airship - fully augmenting its electrical power generation.
Onward and upward: This craft can easily be designed to carry several hundred passengers, and could be
outfit for luxury cruises, continentally or inter-continentally. Imagine going back to the days of yore, and floating silently in the lap of luxury over the Earth's continents or the Earth's oceans. Airship travel was once considered to be the most luxurious way to travel - it could be so again. With the abundant supply of relatively cheap helium gas, the advances in super-light materials for construction of the structure of the airship, the revolutionary design of the vortex drive and the speed afforded by our Tesla-type turbine systems, this could become the wave of the future.
Click image right to enlarge
Investors are welcome to contact us and we will present a thoroughly detailed plan for this system of aerial transportation. Uses for this type of craft are left only to the imagination.
Applications & Features of the Bio-Technical Airship:
Fire Fighting and Search & Rescue Operations Platform - the Airship's ability to hover for long periods of time, stationary over a fire and drop more tons of fire-suppressant or water than any helicopter or airplane make this an ideal craft for forest-fire fighting, especially in remote areas. In just one trip over a classic forest fire in the mid west, the airship can drop enough water, or fire-suppressant material to completely douse the fire. The Airship can quite easily position itself near a skyscraper, or high-rise building and effortlessly fight fires on upper stories where no traditional fire fighting company could ever reach, at present.
For Search And Rescue Operations, helicopters are the norm. With the Airship, hundreds or more victims can be transported away from a disaster scene in very little time - all with just one trip by the Airship. Without the inherent "propeller wash" from a conventional helicopter, the rescue victims' chances are much higher regarding a successful transfer to the airship's platform. The Airship can also be outfit with state-of-the-art Emergency Medical equipment and personnel on-board, making it a moveable, mobile, "Hospital In The Sky." The advantages offered by using the Airship as a Search and Rescue platform would be most evident during disasters, such as the most recent Hurricane Katrina of the past year. If the near future, we can expect many more such hurricanes hitting the coastline of the United States.
Looking forward, it would be highly advantageous for the State of California to look into using two or more of these types of crafts in their rescue arsenal - the "Big Quake" is not a matter if "IF"...it is merely a matter of WHEN it will occur. An Airship, fully outfit as a Search & Rescue and Mobile Hospital Platform would be invaluable during such a disaster. No other craft can offer as many obvious advantages and offer the life-saving potential thus outlined. I have now sent emails to Governor Schwarzenegger, President George Bush, and Vice President Dick Cheney...all fully outlining the advantages of this Airship in Search and Rescue operations, as well as in Homeland Security...I hope one of them or their staff is listening.
Luxury Airship Cruises - as in the days of the Hindenburg...Luxury cruising was the exclusive pursuit of the rich and the comfortable not half a century ago. In recent years, as an entire post-World War II generation approaches retirement, vacation ocean cruises have become affordable to the middle-class masses and cruise ship construction has never been more active.
But what if this popular form of leisure travel were offered in luxurious quarters above the ocean’s surface – in a craft that could soar right past crowded ports and congested highways, skimming just above forests and canyons, then directly delivering its passengers to inland resorts and national parks hundreds of miles from the sea?
That and more is the promise of the Bio-Technical Airship cruise liner – an airship like those only imagined more than a century ago by adventure writers like H. G. Wells and Jules Verne but one updated with the safe technologies of today – visiting remote corners of the world in shipboard luxury that are unreachable by roads and feature no airports. From party cruises that last a day to worldwide voyaging that lasts a month or more, the Bio-Technical Airship cruise liners will rewrite the book on adventure travel.
By 2010, the World Tourism Organization (WTO) anticipates that more than 1 billion people will be traveling domestically and internationally. From 1995 to 2000, there was a growth of 24 percent (about 5 percent annually), with another 45 percent increase expected from 2000 to 2010. International tourism receipts are anticipated to increase to $1.6 trillion by 2010, an impressive 142 percent rise over 10 years. According to WTO´s long-term forecast Tourism: 2020 Vision, international tourist arrivals will top one billion by 2010 and reach 1.56 billion by 2020.
Passengers in helicopters and aircrafts may enjoy comparable views but they will never experience the gentle paces of the Bio-Technical Airship, nor its spaciousness. Flight characteristics are smooth and unlikely to upset the most delicate of stomachs. Another surprise is the sound, or rather the lack of it. The Airship offers cruising speeds of over 250 knots (274mph) and engines can be cut for gentle and smooth ballooning over special scenic locations...just TRY doing that in an airplane.
Commuter (City to City) - For short-haul markets, The Short Take-Off and Landing (“STOL”) capability of our Airship, its relatively low noise, and super-efficient fuel consumption, give the Bio-Technical Airship power advantages. Our craft will be comfortably competitive in short-haul markets, which have to date been largely uneconomical for traditional airliners. The airlines have largely abandoned service routes between 20 and 300 miles, but Airships could operate profitably in these markets, restore service between city centers and even minor airports, and work as a feeder to international airports and hubs. In the world of private aviation, our craft stands alone, offering security, comfort and satisfaction at or exceeding the highest standards of excellence in the aviation industry.
The Bio-Technical Airship is the most luxurious and reliable way to travel. Not only it offers an exceptional service and comfort that far exceeds the first class of the conventional airplane or any private jet, it will make your experience of air travel extraordinary. On board, the traveler will find a bar, gift shops and more leg room than any first class service could ever dream about. The craft will provide more space and better service than the finest first class, at a dramatically lower price. It is a completely different level of air travel. Without a doubt, the Airship will fulfill the most important agenda in the world - namely, yours.
Commercial heavy-lift transport -
direct transport from shipper to receiver
! No tolls, as in the World's canals systems. Shorter shipping times, as the Airship will travel at speeds approaching super-sonic at full speed. It is important to select the means of transport that provides the lowest cost based on the time, size and weight constraints of what is shipped. Availability, punctuality, reliability, security and safety are among the factors to be considered, along with transportation cost, speedy delivery to customer warehouses, inventory demands, product quality and packaging requirements.
The Airship will have a particular advantage relative to other means of transportation for certain types of cargos. Time sensitive cargos that are
currently shipped by land due to cost size and weight limitations of airfreight will be attracted to the speed of the Airship. Shipments that require multiple shipping vectors, such as truck to ship to truck, truck to aircraft to truck, etc. will benefit from the direct delivery capabilities of the craft. Where infrastructure is limited or does not exist, the craft will deliver the goods in a more timely and efficient manner. "The maritime industry faces plenty of changes and lots of challenges in the coming decades". (1998 Journal of Commerce, Inc.).
Click to enlarge image, left
First there's deregulation, which will allow confidential contracts instead of posted rates. Then, there are larger and larger container ships entering the trades, with shortage of funds that ports need to keep channels and berths dredged to handle the bigger ships. Then there's the continued expansion of global trade, with all of its complications and competition. Other wild cards are ports' abilities to move more containers, and dockside equipment and railroad and highway connections that are at or nearing capacity. Like deregulation in other industries, maritime deregulation promises lower rates but also will deliver lots of turmoil and unpredictable consequences once it takes effect. Ocean shipping costs should tumble as the rate-setting cartels go by the wayside, but with falling costs, there will come a real danger of less reliable and dependable service.
These changes, plus the ever increasing average container ship capacity, will put new pressures on cranes, railroad and highway connections.
However, the Bio-Technical Airship is an excellent alternative and cost efficient mode of cargo transportation
, which can carry large and heavy cargo directly from point to point. Conventional aircraft manufacturers including Boeing, Airbus, and Bombardier estimate the number of "short haul" aircraft unit sales to be 3500 to 4500 over the next 20 years, with a value exceeding 80 billion dollars. GET, Inc intends to gain a portion of this market with the introduction of the Airship.
The attraction of the Airship will not only be the 30% capital cost reduction that makes the industry take notice, but the overall 50% reduction in operating costs. The operating cost reduction will be headlined with a dramatic 50% saving in fuel consumption for the same capacity airplane.
The benefit of providing hangar-less maintenance will prove to be an advantage for many operations without large maintenance facilities, as well as military operations in remote parts of the world
Tsunami Early Detection Platform - the Airship can be outfit with any form of scientific monitoring devises, and hover for nearly unlimited time over any area of the World's oceans. Unlike current conventional satellites, the cost to operate and maintain the airship in such capacity is much lower.
Long Term Scientific Observation Craft - The Airship can hover close-to-ground while scientists monitor anything from a volcano, and mountain range, the Amazon jungle, and icebergs of the Arctic and Antarctic areas, etc. Aerial observations of any area on the planet are now possible, cost effective, and financially and scientifically feasible.
Media News Coverage & Broadcasting Platform - the ultimate news coverage craft. Hundreds of news journalists can cover a media event and have all associated media equipment and transmission devises ready and available on-board.
Hello CNN...NBC...CBS...ABC?! Talk about getting the first scoop!
Border Patrol Craft & Observation Platform - the obvious advantage of outfitting the craft with the necessary infrared detection and surveillance equipment and the capability of manning the craft with the appropriate number of law enforcement officers.
High-rise & Skyscraper Fire-Fighting aerial Platform - in today's ultra-modern cities, what other craft could be deployed to reach a fire on the uppermost floors of a skyscraper as cost effectively, or as quickly as this type of Airship? Rescue operations of people trapped on the higher floors could also be facilitated without danger.
Military Observation and Advanced Command Post Craft - an obvious use for the Airship. Through technological material advances, the airship could be built to sustain massive damage from gunfire and most STA missiles - and still remain stable and remain in flight. No further explanation is necessary. The military is already aware of the capabilities - we offer a much superior platform, and propulsion/thrust system...no other craft in the world can offer our military the advantages outlined by this type of Airship.
originally appearing in "KeelyNet" 03/25/02
My version of the Schauberger Bio-technical Submarine
Hold on! This exact process and design for can be utilized in Submersibles, as well (which was, of coarse, Viktor's original intent!). This creates some unique possibilities in regards to ocean-going transportation. Since the craft would now operate
the water's surface, it would effectively be mostly immune to weather conditions on the surface. Speed would be greatly increased over a standard ship's ocean surface speeds, as well. I'll cut this short. I'm an aerospace engineer, not a nautical engineer. There isn't much else to say until someone cuts us a check to build one. Since the cost of building a submarine are, in general, outside that of the Public Sector, this will probably remain only on the drawing board unless the United States Military contacts us.
I would highly doubt this craft could ever be built without substantial military backing and funding
. One thing I may add is this - it's sound signature would be unlike anything previously built, more than likely mimicking that of a large whale in sounds given off. It would definitely be running more "silent" than anything with a conventional screw propeller for propulsion. I'd like to add again, that these initial renderings were provided by our friend, Frank Chase.
From the "Journal Of Borderland Research" - Sep/Oct 1990, page 9.
The biological submarine once had the attention of the German War Lords, but Viktor Schauberger made it look as though it were not very useful, as in his opinion, bio-technology is for supporting progress and not for destruction. This submarine idea was taken from the observation of fish, especially of trout, which can stand motionless in a flowing stream, just by taking water in and out.
once had the attention of the German War Lords, but Viktor Schauberger made it look as though it were not very useful, as in his opinion, bio-technology is for supporting progress and not for destruction. This submarine idea was taken from the observation of fish, especially of trout, which can stand motionless in a flowing stream, just by taking water in and out. This process has two functions, first it creates a vacuum in front of the mouth into which the fish gets sucked, and at the same time provides food, as the water contains all that the fish needs. While the food goes into the digestive system, the water is forced through the fan-like structure of the gills, which not only absorb the oxygen needed, but also push the water backwards. This specially compressed water does not mingle right away with the rest, it glides along the conical body like a wedge and shoves it forward. In addition, on the scales it forms little whirls which enhance the push further. However, Viktor Schauberger was not the sole observer of this phenomenon. Before him others not only formed the same idea but even constructed prototypes with some results
One inventor, A. Borner, came to the conclusion that the speedy motion of the fish is relative to the size of its gills. He constructed a boat with a precise opening in its bow, where a turbine sucked in water like a fish, and pushed it out through slit-like exit ports in such a way that it glided along the hull like a sheet, not only separating it from the friction of the outside water, but also giving it an additional push forward. Further, he applied skin depressions like sharks have on his ship's hull, presuming that they cause small swirls,
and so increased the forward motion
. Borner even incorporated the slippery skin layer that fish have by applying oil to the hull to reduce friction. He hoped all this would bring a 60-80% reduction in fuel. Indeed, experiments with his boat FORELLE, meaning 'trout', achieved twice the speed, while still using the same amount of fuel. Apparently, Borner did not know about the spiral-vortex, which is an invention of Viktor Schauberger. If properly applied, it will not only increase speed, but also reduce fuel consumption to a minimum! (now you know where we got the idea from, eh? FDG)
The drawing (left - click to enlarge) by Dipl. Ing. Walter Schauberger, Viktor's son, shows such a submarine. His bio-technical submarine has a moveable bow, which gives the boat the flexibility fish have. The conical and rifled (rippled) water-intake permits a variable step-up, creating a strong torque on the water, which, after entering the implosion turbine, will be intensified to such a pitch, that now its recoil (resonance) is driving it instead of the motor, as bio-technical applications always have a pull and push action. Such a turbine consists of tapered-down pipes with inside rifling which are bent into spirals. Such FREE ENERGY is not a question of time, rather the will to USE IT, as it already exists, giving us a chance to move on water, under it and in the air using only a fraction of the energy we use today!
Thanks for your time; investor input is always welcome!
Global Energy Technologies, Inc.
frankdgermano at gmail dot com
Bladeless Disk, Vortex And Implosion Technologies
Watchmen's Bible Study Group